It judges without bias. The tiny apartment of the Scarrons quickly became a salon for Parisian authors of a libertine bent. They are richly draped in alternating silk panels as described in the Furniture Store-House inventories from 1708: red damask, crimson damask, and red taffeta for the second antechamber; green and gold damask for the bedroom; and crimson and gold flower damask for the Chambers. At the beginning of the dialogue, Justice presents its traditional claim as the preeminent virtue: “There is nothing as beautiful as Justice. Things quickly unraveled once Louis XIV of France learned Scarron once whored herself at Villarceaux. The Villette residence at Mursay with its extensive fairytale forests would become a paradise for young Françoise. The dramatic dialogue On Courage demonstrates how women as well as men are required to cultivate the virtue of courage. Madame de Maintenon held a great influence over Louis XIV, who visited her every day in her apartments overlooking the palace’s royal courtyard. He was the very symbol of absolutism, and with the help of his ministers he extended the kingdom and developed trade and industry. Louis XIV, son of Louis XIII and Anne of Austria, was crowned King of France on 7 June 1654 in Reims.He married Maria Theresa of Austria on 9 June 1660. Exercises of piety are to be commended only to the extent that they reflect the moderation and sobriety typical of the virtue of temperance. If they really want to read, ensure that they use carefully chosen books apt to nourish their faith, to cultivate their judgment, and to guide their morals.”  Of the Proper Choice of Theatrical Pieces underlines the risk of heresy as well as of moral corruption run by too lenient a regime of literary surveillance: “Don’t you [the teachers] realize the ease with which you grant entry to these little booklets without preliminary approval exposes your pupils to the greatest dangers? The successful reconciliation between the spouses enhanced Maintenon’s standing in court but earned her the enmity of her old patron, Madame de Montespan. The second wife of King Louis XIV of France, Madame de Maintenon has long fascinated historians and novelists by her improbable life. Commentators began to note Maintenon’s skill as a moraliste, an analyst of the conflicting interplay of virtue and vice in the human constitution. In 1717, Peter the Great visited France. But these anthologies presented an oddly areligious Maintenon, carefully denatured by the anti-clerical Third Republic. In the corridors of power" on the Palace of Versailles' free app. John J. Conley The address On Politeness insists on the central value of good manners to be cultivated by the pupils at Saint-Cyr. Dissatisfied with the narrowly religious education provided by the convent schools of the period, Maintenon founded her own lay group of teachers, the Dames of Saint-Louis, to provide instruction. Subscribe to our weekly newsletter and join our 4,525 subscribers to stay up to date on History of Royal Women's articles! Dernière grande figure féminine du règne de Louis XIV, Madame de Maintenon, recommandée par Madame de Montespan, a d’abord assumé le rôle de gouvernante des enfants bâtards du souverain avant de devenir l’épouse secrète du roi. Despite initially despising the restrictions that the structured convent life placed on her, young Françoise soon formed a close bond with one nun in particular, Sister Céleste, and eventually settled into convent life. Madame de Maintenon bore much of the blame for this new state of affairs, which many courtiers resented. Of particular philosophical importance are the writings where Maintenon treats ethical issues, especially the nature of virtue and vice. Your data will be shared with Google and other ad vendors. Mais Madame de Maintenon devance la favorite dans le cœur du roi et s’installe au château de The Quietism promoted by Guyon stressed simplicity in prayer, confidence in God, and retirement from the world. Even the virtues of religion must subordinate themselves to the empire of temperance. The publication of Maintenon’s alleged letters (1752) by the Huguenot writer Laurent Angliviel de La Beaumelle presented Maintenon as the hidden architect of Louis XIV’s Revocation of the Edict of Nantes and other persecutory measures. Her Instructions are addresses to the students in which she censures the typical vices and exalts the ideal virtues of the student body. I began this website in 2013 because I wanted to share these women's amazing stories. Maintenon then conquered court society as the governess of the illegitimate children of King Louis XIV and finally as the wife of the widowed King. Louis XIV, the Palace of Versailles, absolute monarchy… Why don’t we take a closer look at the emergence of the nation state in early modern France? After the sudden death of Queen Marie-Thérèse on July 9, 1683, the king drew closer to Maintenon. The majority of the works left by Madame de Maintenon originated during her tenure at the Institute of Saint Louis (1686-1719). But Maintenon politeness does not limit itself to a code of external conduct; it is ultimately an interior disposition of respect toward all persons whom the mature aristocrat encounters: “Whatever you say or do, be careful to avoid giving offense or embarrassment to anyone.”  The purpose of external polite conduct is to express sensitivity toward the feelings and dignity of others. During guided tours, a speaker from the Palace invites you into lesser known locations otherwise closed to the visitors. Françoise moved in with her aunt at an early age as her parents struggled to provide for the family. In the nineteenth-century, Théophile Lavallée’s multi-volume edition of the works of Maintenon (1854-66) presented the breadth and complexity of Maintenon’s extensive writings. Madame Scarron would become known to history as Madame de Maintenon. In 1680 she was given the position, created especially for her, of “second lady-in-waiting” to the Dauphine. Through this estate. By this time Louis had already secretly married to Madame de Maintenon. He married Maria Theresa of Austria on 9 June 1660. In the corridors of power. The Bonaparte Women – Marie Louise of Austria. The restoration of the King's Private Chamber, launched thanks the patronage of Rolex France, will restore the room to its former glory. By the end of the seventeenth century, Maintenon had guided Saint-Cyr toward the pedagogical model she would support until her death. The couple secretly married on a disputed date in either late 1683 or early 1684 with few witnesses. 0. Her influence has inspired this dedicated exhibition, now open to the public. In 1669 she accepted a delicate mission: to serve as the governess for the illegitimate children of Louis XIV and her fellow salonnière, Madame de Montespan. 1638-1715. The memoirs of the courtier Louis de Rouvroy, duc de Saint-Simon (1675-1755), and the letters of Charlotte-Elisabeth of Bavaria, duchesse d’ Orléans (1652-1722), depicted Maintenon as a schemer who manipulated Louis XIV’s emotions of grief to achiever her power and then used that power to intensify the anti-Protestant policies of the throne. Addressing Saint-Cyr’s student body of aristocratic girls and women, Maintenon devoted particular attention to the virtues of civility essential for polite society. Among her charges, Françoise became extremely attached to Louis Auguste, the eldest of the children. Her dramatic dialogues and addresses to students developed her distinctive moral philosophy, based on detailed analysis of the moral virtues to be cultivated by the pupils. Your email address will not be published. Discover the audio tour of the exhibition "Madame de Maintenon. In 1675, again acting on the advice of the Marquise de Montespan, Louis XIV granted her two royal donations which enabled her to purchase the estate of Maintenon and take on the title which came with it. ]. Elle assure l’éducation de leurs enfants, loin de la Cour. Her skillful education of the children impressed the king and his stormy mistress. Palacefrom 9:00 am to 5:30 pmclosed on Mondays, Estate of Trianonfrom 12:00 pm to 5:30 pmclosed on Mondays, Coach Galleryfrom 12:30 pm to 5:30 pmclosed on Mondays, + 33 1 30 83 78 00price of a call to France, Musical Fountains Shows and Musical Gardens, Restoration of the King's Private Chamber, Research centre of the Palace of Versailles. It would be this nurturing and maternal nature that would soon attract the King to the lowly widow. The marriage was never publicly announced, although the court quickly perceived that Madame de Maintenon had assumed the role and duties of Louis XIV’s legitimate wife. Newly ennobled and financially secure, Madame de Maintenon now took her own place as a titled aristocrat among the courtiers of Versailles. Eventually, in 1691 Montespan would retire to a convent. By the end of August, it became clear that any day could be the King’s last. The bride’s modest social origins raised a problem, since Louis XIV had insisted on dynastic marriages for other members of his family. 9 Louis XIV, King of France, died on the 1st of September 1715, leaving Françoise a widow once again. He died in Versailles in 1715 at the age of 77. Louis’ first impression of her, it appears, was that she was “unbearable.”. Without the restraining hand of temperance, the other virtues would quickly deteriorate into rigorism, foolhardiness, or fearfulness. “Certainly courage is opposed to fear. 1638-1715. Sophisticated concerts, plays, debates, and liturgical services soon attracted a prestigious Parisian public. In the late nineteenth-century, educational officials of the French Third Republic attempted to foster public high school education for women through the new institution of the lycée. During these salon sessions Madame Scarron also read and debated the works of Descartes. Press "agree" if you are okay with this. It imposes itself as the central virtue inasmuch as it prevents the other virtues from deteriorating into their customary excesses. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! However, the new Madame Scarron knew that due to the declining health of her husband, the comfort wouldn’t last long. The morganatic nature of the marriage meant that Françoise could never become Queen or be formally recognised as Louis’ lawful wife. The first exhibition entirely devoted to the Marquise of Maintenon, on the tercentenary of her death on 15 April 1719, recounts the extraordinary life of Françoise d’Aubigné. During her salon years, she studied the philosophical currents of the period, notably libertinism and Cartesianism. The dialogue denies that eminence consists in social rank or economic fortune; on the contrary, authentic eminence consists in an unusual degree of self-mastery. But there is more than one kind of fear. The immediate posthumous reputation of Madame de Maintenon was a largely negative one. Maintenon repeatedly reminds her pupils that this posture of reverence includes one’s servants and social inferiors as well as one’s peers and social superiors. When the Russian royal asked Françoise what illness she was suffering from, Françoise replied “great age and a weak constitution” 10. It only honors what is worthy of honor.”  But the other cardinal virtues soon manifest their eminence over justice by demonstrating why and how the virtue of justice must be subordinated to them in order for justice to actually achieve its social ends. In 1688, the King gave the estate of Maintenon the title of marquisat-pairie. Check your inbox or spam folder to confirm your subscription. Louis XIV, son of Louis XIII and Anne of Austria, was crowned King of France on 7 June 1654 in Reims. This type of achievement is not for our sex.”  Victoria counters that, although women are not called to cultivate the martial courage proper to men, there are other types of courage necessary to women. After Madame de Montespan was excommunicated, Madame de Maintanon became King Louis' personal consort. The beautiful and intelligent Françoise captivated Paul Scarron, and the two soon began exchanging letters. Of Solid Education explains the educational end of Saint-Cyr for the faculty: “You [the teachers] apply yourself to developing the piety, the reason, and the morals of your girls. It can be used without an Internet connection. You can now listen the audio records of the symposium on its official page. [A collection of letters and addresses dealing with issues of education. Traditionally masculine virtues, such as courage, are redefined to serve as the ideal ethical traits of the industrious wife largely confined to the domestic sphere. In addition, a massive correspondence of over five thousand letters written by Maintenon has survived. Her expert nursing of their son, the Duke of Maine, during a serious illness appeared to them miraculous. Her primary interest remained the direction of the school at Saint-Cyr, to which she retired in 1715, shortly after the death of Louis XIV. ], [A critical treatment of Maintenon’s work as antifeminist. That is where we find true eminence.”  Paralleling her own controversial career in the French court, Maintenonian eminence subverts a social hierarchy of rank based on biological inheritance and exalts moral and social distinction acquired through tenacious personal endeavor. The founder and director of the celebrated school for women at Saint-Cyr, Maintenon defended her theories of education for women in a series of addresses to the Saint-Cyr faculty. Serving at first as governess to Louis XIV’s illegitimate children away from the prying eyes of the court, she later married the king in secret. Françoise d’Aubigné was born on the 27th of November 1635 in France. “True eminence consists in esteeming virtue alone, in knowing how to distance ourselves from fortune when it turns against us and how to avoid being intoxicated by fortune when it turns our way. Versailles Wiki is a FANDOM TV Community. 1 Related Pages 2 Personality 3 Biography 3.1 Early Life 3.2 Season Two 3.3 M A I N 3.4 O T H E R 4 Gallery Madame de Maintenon/Gallery Kingdom of France Castle of Villarceaux N/A N/A She is a long time childhood friend of Madame de Montespan, who was introduced to Versailles as her child's … Life at courtDe 1668 à 1719Règne de Louis XIV, Françoise d’Aubigné, Marquise de Maintenon, first appeared at Versailles in the 1670s. Françoise saw it as her duty to save the King’s soul, and her impact would be extensive. The Niort Convent was part of the Ursuline Order, one which focused on educating young women. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Born in 1635 in the prison at Niort, where her father was imprisoned for debt, she was orphaned in 1647 and in 1652 married the poet Paul Scarron, who was renowned as a master of the burlesque. The last great female presence in the life of Louis XIV, Madame de Maintenon was first brought to the king’s attention by Madame de Montespan. Subsequent discovery of the forged nature of the most incriminating letters in La Beaumelle’s collection did little to soften the image of Maintenon as a manipulative bigot, an image still present in Patricia Mazuy’s film Saint-Cyr (2000). Françoise d'Aubigné (27 November 1635 – 15 April 1719), known first as Madame Scarron and subsequently as Madame de Maintenon (French: [madam də mɛ̃t(ə)nɔ̃] (listen)), was a French noblewoman who secretly married King Louis XIV. Twenty-five years her senior, Scarron was a paralyzed, impotent satirist renowned for the vitriol of his verse burlesques. From April 4th to November 1st 2020, enjoy the Musical Fountains Shows and the Musical Gardens in the Gardens and the groves open for the occasion. In 1686, Jules Hardouin-Mansart and Jean-Pierre Le Maistre were put in charge of the extension work, particularly the north wing so that the château could be linked to St. Nicolas Church for the King to attend mass. During the last days that Louis and Françoise spent together sheaves of paper, mainly letters exchanged between husband and wife were burned. Her remains were rediscovered during the Second World War amid the ruins of the bombed academy and were transferred to the royal chapel at the Palace of Versailles, before being returned to Saint-Cyr in 1969. sister-in-law of Louis XIV, memoir writer, memoir writer who lived during the reign of Louis XIV, Master of the King's Music under Louis XIV. I shorten a sermon, a spiritual dialogue, or an examination of conscience.”  Echoing Méré’s portrait of the honnête homme, Maintenon’s moral ideal of the student is the woman who subjects all thought and action to the moderating influence of temperance. ], [A critical study of Maintenon’s school at Saint-Cyr compared with other period experiments in education of women. In her account of the cardinal virtues, temperance holds pride of place. In the case of Saint-Cyr, it is the development of the skills and the moral habits of the pupil who faces the future as a member of the impoverished, provincial nobility. You know that Our Lord tells us that we should not do to others what we do not want others to do to us. Her Conversations (dialogues) are brief morality plays that define and illustrate the major virtues the student must inculcate. My name is Moniek and I am from the Netherlands. In 1684, she founded the Maison royale de Saint-Louis, a school for girls from poorer noble families. Eventually Madame de Maintenon deposed her rival and became the dominant female force at Versailles, where she imposed a new sense of order and propriety. Born into an impoverished, criminal family, Maintenon conquered salon society as the wife of the poet Paul Scarron. It consists in sharing the destiny of the unfortunate and in never holding them in contempt.”  In this fusion of neo-Stoic and Christian theories of virtue, eminence denotes both volitional equilibrium and sacrificial love of the suffering neighbor. The app includes the audioguide tour of the Palace and an interactive map of the Estate. With the interference the pious Queen Mother and Regent, Anne of Austria, Françoise was forced to leave the idyllic Mursay and the loving family she had found there. Maintenon and Montespan Maintenon and Delphine Subscribe to our free weekly newsletter and join our 4,525 subscribers to stay up to date on History of Royal Women's articles! 8 On the 30th of August, shortly after five o’clock, Madame de Maintenon departed Versailles after being assured by her confessor that her dying husband no longer needed her. She was especially influenced by George Brossin, chevalier de Méré, the essayist who argued that the honnête homme, the temperate person who exercised restraint in arriving at judgments, should be the moral ideal of an age exhausted by religious fanaticism. [email protected] This installation was made possible thanks to the restoration of these wall hangings by Tassinari et Chatel, the nation’s oldest silk manufacturer, founded in Lyon by Louis XIV. Maintenon insisted that dialogue rather than lecture was to be the primary means of education in the Saint-Cyr classroom. 2. On the tercentenary of her death, Madame de Maintenon, Louis XIV’s secret wife, will return to her apartments in the Palace of Versailles for an exhibition in her honour, from 16 April to 21 July 2019. Alexandre Maral, Head Curator for Heritage and Director of the Centre de recherche du château de Versailles, Mathieu da Vinha, Scientific Director of the Centre de recherche du château de Versailles. The primary philosophical interest of Maintenon’s works lies in its treatment of two related topics: educational theory and virtue theory. Burial places of the Queens and Consorts of England, Burial places of the Queens Consort of France, Burial places of the Queens and Consorts of Portugal, Burial Places of the Queens and Consorts of Spain, Carolina of Orange-Nassau – Ancestress of the Royal Houses of Europe, Queen Wilhelmina – A collection of articles. “The Gospel firmly accords with the duties of a civil life. Maintenon personally supervised the direction of the school, designed to serve two hundred and fifty students. This must be our great rule, which does not rule out certain customs traditional in our native lands.”  Civility entails reciprocity, a recognition of the other persons one meets as one’s equal in dignity and in need. He worked here, held meetings with his ministers, and enjoyed moments of tranquillity in the company of his secret wife. Among her charges, Françoise became extremely attached to Louis Auguste, the eldest of the children. 6 Attempting to restore peace, the King purchased a beautiful Chateau on the Maintenon estate for Françoise. In October 1683, some months after the death of the Queen, Maria Theresa of Austria, Madame de Maintenon secretly married Louis XIV. By 1670, Françoise had accepted a role raising the illegitimate children of the French King Louis XIV and his mistress, Françoise’s close friend, Madame de Montespan. Françoise d’Augbigné was born on November 27-28, 1635, allegedly in the prison of Niort in central France. Civility entails not talking about oneself, not making others listen too long to oneself, listening carefully to others, avoiding making conversation focus on oneself and one’s tastes, and permitting the conversation to move naturally toward the accommodation of other people’s interests.”  Although civility includes the salon art of refined conversation, Maintenon presents the virtue as a refined species of humility, in which the concerns of others trump one’s own. “Since God has made you ladies by birth, have a lady’s manners. For the following six years Madame Scarron would live in relatively comfortable circumstances with a generous pension provided by the Queen Mother. Despite this, Françoise would be a great comfort to the King as those closest to him died. The anthologies of Maintenon’s texts assembled by Cadet (1885), Faguet (1885), Geoffroy (1887), and Jacquinet (1888) were textbooks designed for the new lycée. Not only am I opposed to all evil; I moderate all good. You can acquire an influence over them that will prove beneficial.”  The pupil is not to remain passive in this dialogue. Her body was exhumed by revolutionaries in 1793. Françoise’s harrowing childhood included a stay in Martinique (1645-1647) during one of her father’s failed political adventures; a bitter stay with a distant relative who used her as a domestic servant (1648); tempestuous periods at Ursuline convent schools in Niort and Paris (1648); and a painful return to her impoverished mother (1649-1652), during which time the young Françoise was forced to beg in the streets. The artistic period achieved its culmination in the world premiere of Jean Racine’s Esther on January 26, 1689. We have to see ourselves as we are. He was the very symbol of absolutism, and with the help of his ministers he extended the kingdom and developed trade and industry. Madame de Maintenon. You inspire in them the love and practices of all virtues proper to them now and in the future.”  Maintenon insists that the virtue to be cultivated and the means used to achieve this ethical culture must always be “reasonable,” but this reasonableness is of a practical rather than speculative nature. Disowned by his father Agrippa d’Aubigné, a prominent Huguenot military officer and poet, Constant d’Aubigné had married Jeanne de Cardhilac, daughter of Niort’s prison warden, in 1627. I moderate both the inclination to give alms and the inclination to hoard money. Emily muses about “the poverty we may find in the future and the foul character of those with whom we will have to deal. The household established by Françoise was a comfortable and loving one in which she played a key maternal role. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. Without me, Justice would be intolerable to human weakness, Fortitude would drive us to despair, Prudence would often prevent us from taking the actions we should and make waste our time weighing every option. The King took an interest in Maintenon and in 1676 sent his gardener, Le Nôtre, to draw up plans for the grounds. “I [prudence] regulate its [justice’s] operations, prevent it from precipitation, make it take its time.”  Similarly, fortitude strengthens justice when justice hesitates to execute proper punishment on a friend. “There is much more nobility in living from one’s work and from one’s savings than in being a burden to one’s friends….I wouldn’t tell rich people to sell their needlework, but I would tell those who aren’t so rich to do so.”  Rather than being tied to distinguished public achievement, glory emerges as a simple preeminence in the practice of sacrificial virtues of service. Madame Scarron patiently nursed a sickly husband who visibly esteemed his beautiful and intelligent young wife. The secondary goal is vocational formation. I moderate the length of prayer, ascetical practices, recollection, silence, and good works. You then more accurately teach them the differences between the good, the evil, and the morally indifferent.”  Maintenon’s insistence on a dialogical method of instruction reflects the value placed on refined conversation in the aristocratic circles of the period; it also expresses the conviction that the pedagogy of moral formation cannot succeed if the moral tutor has not gauged the actual moral temperament of the pupil as the tutor guides her to the school’s ideal of ethical maturity. The controversies surrounding her social ascent have long obscured the contributions of Maintenon to educational and moral philosophy. Situated in 1686 at Saint-Cyr, the Institute of Saint Louis was generously subsidized by Louis XIV. Her philosophy of virtues is a gendered one inasmuch as Maintenon attempted to redefine traditionally masculine virtues in terms of current female experience. In death, as in life, Madame de Maintenon could not formally be recognised as the wife of Louis XIV. In her addresses to the faculty of Saint-Cyr, Maintenon sketches her philosophy of education. During summer, every Saturday night discover the Gardens of Versailles differently with the Night Fountains shows. Given the secret nature of her marriage, Maintenon’s influence on the court of Louis XIV remained a discreet one. Obviously, this approach provides less occasion for the knowledge and skill of the schoolmistress to sparkle. 7 In 1711, Louis would suffer another profound loss, the death of his only legitimate son, The Grand Dauphin. A few days before the death of Louis XIV in 1715, his powerful secret bride retired to Saint-Cyr, the school for girls which she had persuaded the king to found. The adolescent study of Plutarch introduced her to the period’s vogue for Stoicism and cultivated her lifelong taste for the literature of moral edification. Other commentators, however, notably Carolyn Lougee (1976) and Carlo François (1987), lament that Maintenon’s educational experiments and theories still confined women to the spheres of the household and of the convent. The household established by Françoise was a comfortable and loving one in which she played a key maternal role. Shortly after, Françoise was sent to live in a convent. Young Françoise was educated as a Protestant, despite being baptised in her mother’s Catholic faith. The marriage appears to have been a happy one, leaving Françoise much grieved by the death of her husband just eight years later in 1660. Maintenon, Françoise d’Aubigné, marquise de Maintenon. Loyola University of Maryland. This exhibition is made in media partnership with : 21-23 March 2019This international symposium has been an opportunity to take a fresh look at this multifaceted historical figure, reviewing the biographical aspects of the Marquise, as well as her correspondence and the literary and iconographic legend surrounding her. Of the Education of Ladies argues that teacher-pupil dialogue should occur outside as well as inside the classroom: “On occasion you [the teachers] should be ready to chat informally with your pupils. John Conley’s English translation of and commentary on Maintenon (2004) describes the complexity of her moral psychology, especially in her account of virtue and freedom. They very well might criticize without the moderation we are accustomed to here [at Saint-Cyr].”  Distinct from the courage of the warrior, the courage of women presents itself as the capacity to endure academic and domestic obstacles in the patient pursuit of one’s personal vocation as student or mistress of the manor. 5. By 1670, Françoise had accepted a role raising the illegitimate children of the French King Louis XIV and his mistress, Françoise’s close friend, Madame de Montespan.
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